IC – Integrated Circuit
Integrated Circuits are circuits, comprising of elements that are interconnected in a way that they are inseparable. They are also known as microchips have various uses. It is a package consisting of transistors, logic gates, circuits, pathways and other components that are designed to perform specific functions. ICs are the building blocks of computer hardware.
What is the IC?
IC is a semiconductor wafer on which many tiny resistors, transistors, and capacitors are fabricated. It can also function as an amplifier, microprocessor, oscillator, timer, and counter or computer memory.
ICs have their origin in the invention of transistors in 1947 by William B. Shockley and his team. Comparatively the size of the devices like resistors, capacitors; was small but the awkward wiring between the devices was quite complicated.
Later on, in 1958 Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce came up with an idea to lay a very thin path of metal wires in between these devices. Thus, with this technique, the entire circuit could be integrated on a single solid material and hence ICs were invented.
Based on different criteria such as connections, size, and manufacturing process, and signals used; ICs can be categorized as follows
Analog Integrated Circuits
These are the simplest of all the ICs. Analog circuits are connected to devices that receive or send signals to the environment. For an eg. microphone.
Digital Integrated Circuits
They operate on specified voltages. A circuit that uses only binary circuits (i.e. 1 and 0).
Mixed Integrated Circuits
They are the combination of analog and digital integrated circuits called mixed ic. These functions as Digital to analog converters and vice versa.